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    • in the era of cyberspace the term 'sharing' is more common than 'access'. And this is one of the prominent characteristics of this space
      in the era of cyberspace the term 'sharing' is more common than 'access'. And this is one of the prominent characteristics of this space

      The public relations of Supreme Council of Cyberspace has reported taht in national seminar on the ecosystem of universal access to information in Allameh Tabataba'i University, Dr. Abolhassan Firouzabadi pointed out that "in modern and maturity of the cyberspace era, it is not possible to govern without sharing information and resources. In fact, we are moving towards service-oriented architecture and the notion of cloud service is derived from this outlook that we can utilize common resources and information and share them."

      Dr. Firouzabadi indicated that having access to the information and sharing them is demanded in new governance. "This is a complicated issue. At the moment we are still encountering serious problems in electronic government in government-government layer. So, it is important to consider access and sharing with its difficulties, because according to the tendencies in technology towards convergence, sharing and modification of the governments by forming new terms such as governing, implementing of access to information has encountered serious problems."
      Pointing out the requirement of solving the enigma of privacy and free access to information, he added "what is your privacy in this space? Your privacy starts from bionanometric which connects you to the space and coexistence of human and things begins. Therefore, new legal issues come to existence and they need to be redefined.
      Dr. Firouzabadi asserted that these are all in an ecosystem that in which the anonymity has reached to its climax. "This anonymity is consisted of both software and hardware existence. Due to the complexity of the software, they are not easy to identify. We could identify hardware existences after nanometer but how complicated software existences, resulted from process, are identified? In fact, it should be taken into account that, in this space, hardware identities are not even static but dynamic, let alone software! There are problems in knowing software identities and giving static identity for them seems impossible."
      He declared "cyber activists, whether intentionally to grasp the market from the perspective of the capitalist system or unintentionally, are enjoying anonymity, so there is irresponsibility and lack of transparency.
      Referring to the intensity of annoying state of anonymity and irresponsibility in this space regarding media, he said that "not only in Iran but also all over the world, discussions that mentioned in IGF are about hate speech and fake news, and discussions mentioned in multimedia are about deep fake and distinguishing forgery from original. The latter is turned to be a difficult job and the problem of anonymity should be resolved in order to access information and take the responsibility."
      About digital divide he added that "accessibility and affordability are mentioned in this field, the former is usually obtained by network expansion and the latter by cheap rates. But here the issue of literacy is very important and in my idea we should give due attention to the issue of reactivity. In fact, providing accessibility and affordability, we should admit that science in its new definition is social constructivism, and the science, derived from information, is social constructivism, and these information are not only written in the books but they are being produced explosively."
      He announced that "we are still regarding this issue from institutionalism and imperative perspective but we need to know that provided by accessibility and affordability of information analysis, what kind of reaction should we have in local and global level? And is the issue of reactivity resolved in national and global level?"
      He added that this issue has not yet resolved in global level. "One of the other problems of this space is the information divide between platform owners and users. Cyberspace platforms are concentrating on the information and governing these platforms in national and global levels is not clear. And this is while we have not still made the rule about a single platform in national and international level. In fact, for roles in norm creating, valuating of the accessibility method, and resolving above mentioned enigma about the platforms we have not taken any special actions."
      Secretary of Iran's Supreme Council of Cyberspace pointed out that valuation system, which resulted in information and data overload on platforms, is dominated by platform owners. "Big companies like Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and Apple determine the accessibility's kind, quality, and algorithm and a kind of platform hegemony is formed in this field. And this platform hegemony should be challenged at universities and circle of elites for the first time."
      He said that the governments are in permanent challenge with platforms and this is confused by defending national interests. "In this globalization process, the platform hegemony, which is forming in the field of information access, may be neglected but this does not diminish its scientific value. Regarding our knowledge of platforms moving towards becoming pseudo-monopoly in the world, and sometimes these pseudo-monopolies are irreversible, we should consider the matter."
      Dr. Firouzabadi indicated that in this field, issues like the relationship between new governance systems and democracy systems and their relation to platform hegemony in information divide are considered around the world. "There is a challenge in governments to dominate this space, and it is referred to as weakening state and nation and strengthening the others like elites, civil society, and private sector. We should know that the distance between private sector and civil society is a serious threat and a new type of platform capitalism, which is forming in this space, needs to be investigated.
      He emphasized that "we should not put the pressure only on governments to access information but the issue is more complicated. We do not have any system in the most basic relations of this field and there are even some problems in protecting information. Other countries have taken steps forward and GDRR is brought up in Europe while we should have moved sooner."
      Secretary of Iran's Supreme Council of Cyberspace pointed out that data management and commodity making out of data is not still defined in the country. "The data has economic value and the size of network determines its economic value. In this powerful economic system stemmed from data value, network, and commodification of data, which is forming, it is not possible to chant slogans about free and unlimited access and economic dimensions should also be considered."
      About the formation of soft power out of information he said that "soft power is forming alongside the hard power. Unlike the hard power, operates when concentrated, soft power is severely scattered. Therefore, we should discover that where does the soft power operate in cyberspace?"
      Dr. Firouzabadi added that "soft power operates in platforms, in which data and information are concentrated. To access information, we need to organize this issue and take into account several items: thwarting made by platforms, applied practical authority within the countries' frameworks beyond the borders and decline the national power following that.
      Secretary of Iran's Supreme Council of Cyberspace asserted that in information access we should consider economic, political, and social dimensions. "there are more information on platforms than within the country and be sure that if health, education, and trading platforms are reinforced in the country, their thwarting power, practical authority, and deprivation removal will increase in the country. Supreme Council of Cyberspace attempts to prioritize and organize different dimensions of this field."
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